Ischaemic Heart Disease

Ischaemic Heart Disease

Hi! I’m robo-Suzie and today I’ll talk to
you about Ischaemic Heart Disease. Also don’t forget to subscribe for more tips
in the future! But back to our topic. Signs and Symptoms. In the initial stages of the disease it is
unlikely for any symptoms to manifest. The primary symptoms that will be present
after the disease has progressed will include angina pectoris and heart failure. Angina Pectoris. Angina Pectoris is chest pain that may occur
in times of emotional distress, in cold weather conditions and during physical activity. It
may radiate from the chest area to the jaw, shoulder blades, neck and left arm. There
are cases of ischaemia that will not exhibit any form of angina attacks and in such cases
it is defined as silent ischaemia. Heart Failure. Heart failure may result from ischaemic heart
disease. This may cause shortness of breath or difficulty breathing which worsens during
physical activity or when lying flat, pronounced coughing, decreased ability to perform normal
activities and or swelling of the ankles. Risk Factors. Though the specific cause of Ischaemic heart
disease is unknown there are some factors that tend to increase the likelihood of developing
the disease. Having a family history of certain other conditions
may increase overall risk. These include diabetes, coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis and
hypertension. Lacking proper nutrition, in particular consuming
foods that are high in fat. Being a smoker especially one who smokes at
least one pack of cigarettes per day. Having suffered from a heart attack of stroke
at least once. Being significantly overweight or obese. Leading a very stressful lifestyle. Having elevated cholesterol levels. Suffering from uncontrolled high blood pressure
or hypertension. Being a diabetic. Leading a sedentary lifestyle or lacking sufficient
levels of physical activity to maintain health. Diagnosing and Treating the Disease. Diagnostic tests. Once angina is suspected after experiencing
chest pain, tests are performed to confirm the likelihood of an angina attack. The chest
pains will first be determined to have materialized as a result of physical activity that is alleviated
by rest or from being exposed to cold conditions or because of lying flat. An electrocardiogram
or ECG may be performed to observe the changes that occur during an attack. It is also possible
to administer a dose of sublingual nitroglycerin that relieves the associated pain of angina
in a matter of minutes. These methods of testing will confirm if these attacks are in fact
angina attacks. There are also tests that are performed to
establish the intensity of the ischaemia and also to identify probable coronary artery
disease. The tests will generally be carried out using electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram,
x-rays of the chest, exercise tolerance test, thallium stress test, coronary angiogram and
or cholesterol and blood tests to analyse total fat, lipoproteins and cholesterol levels. Treatments. A part of the treatment will include personal
management and changes in lifestyle. It will be necessary to decrease or completely
stop smoking which will significantly worsen the progression of the disease. It will require a change in diet and a strict
adherence to nutritional guidelines that will dictate the levels of fat and cholesterol
that should be consumed daily; essentially this will be a low fat and low cholesterol
diet. Drugs may be administered to lower cholesterol
levels. An exercise regimen will be suggested to greatly
improve overall health. A method of stress management and reduction
may be recommended. If hypertension is present treatment for that
condition with a low sodium diet and medication will be critical. Maintaining an ideal body weight will also
greatly improve the chances of managing the disease. A balloon angioplasty may be incorporated.
This will involve the use of a small uninflated balloon that will be passed up the affected
artery and inflated to free the obstruction. Though this type of treatment will alleviate
many of the associated symptoms of the disease it will not necessarily control the disease
itself. In extreme cases it may be vital to have bypass
surgery performed. This will in effect, bypass the affected coronary arteries. Treatment may also include medications such
as nitrates, calcium channel antagonists, beta blockers and anti-platelet drugs. Beta
blockers will lower the heart rate when resting thus decreases the demand for oxygen. Nitrates
will eliminate an angina attack. Calcium channel blockers will hinder blood vessel constriction
and consequently prevent artery spasm. Anti- platelet drugs like aspirin will prevent platelets
from sticking to blood vessel walls therefore reducing the likelihood of further narrowing
of the vessels. If the disease has progressed beyond repair
or when normal treatment is not applicable then a heart transplant may have to be performed.
Prognosis If treatment ensues before grave damage is
done to the heart then the outlook is generally fair. Adopting a doctor regulated regimen
will improve overall quality of life and longevity. It is possible for aggressive treatments to
hinder the course of the disease and reverse some of the damage that has already occurred.
The long term forecast for the disease will be contingent upon several factors, including:
the ability of the heart to pump effectively, the extent or progression of the disease when
identified and age upon diagnosis. Preventing Heart Disease in General. Having a knowledge of the associated risk
factors and measures to successfully reduce the development of heart disease can be useful
in minimizing the likelihood of being affected by it. Eliminating smoking, incorporating
a good exercise routine into daily life, consuming less fatty foods, controlling other pre-existing
conditions like diabetes and hypertension and maintaining an ideal body weight are fairly
good measures to lessen the probability of being afflicted by any of these types of heart
disorders. That’s it! Thank you.
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